400 Years

Remarks I delivered at a commemorative ceremony marking the 400th anniversary of the arrival of enslaved African people in present-day Virginia: 

Four hundred years ago, privateers brought forth, on this continent, the beginnings of what would become a new nation. This nation, conceived in liberty and in slavery, would struggle henceforth with the proposition that all people are indeed created equal. The first enslaved people that arrived from Africa in the English colonies were stolen. They were not the first to be enslaved in the Americas; they were far, far from the last. The story of American slavery is one that precedes 1619 and ripples well into the present, in forms of social injustice, bigotry, and malice.

Today, we are still engaged in a great internal battle, testing whether this nation, or any nation so conceived, and so dedicated, can long endure. We are not on a battlefield but we are in a war of ideas and conflicting truths. We come together, today, to think of those who forcibly gave their lives and their labor, and who have been robbed of their freedom so that this nation could exist. The stories of the enslaved are often called “hidden,” “unknown,” or “lost.” Who did the hiding, and who did the losing? When did you first learn about enslavement as a historical fact? And when did you first really come to terms with what it would have meant to be bartered, purchased, or sold in the land of the free?

We cannot merely dedicate this day, this ground, this moment. We have to take up the call to make use of the past in the service of truth, in living up to our name as America’s storytellers and our obligation as citizens of this place, this time. Indeed, “the world will little note, nor long remember what we say here” we are but one site, one place marking this moment. Still, we ought to remember the “unfinished work” of democracy that led to a bloody war; we should commemorate those who believed that this nation could have “a new birth of freedom, and” a “government of the people, by the people, for the people [.]” That has often been an imperiled, unmet promise. Let us work for a better future, starting by looking clearly at the past.

Eugenics: A Cultural Inheritance

Note: this essay and accompanying list of articles may be used as a subject guide for researching historical newspapers on the topic of Eugenics in Connecticut. 
The Inheritance of Eugenics
Over the course of a little more than a century, Connecticut changed from a place where
ardent social reformers worked to create cutting-edge, therapeutic spaces for the deaf and mentally ill to a state on the forefront of eugenic science and legal action. Though eugenic science was influential nationwide, a closer look at one state, and particularly a state once thought to be especially progressive in this area, can perhaps illuminate how this corrosive way of thinking came to be mainstream.

In the early 19th century, specialized retreats and asylums in CT provided, in some cases, hitherto unknown levels of clinical attention and care to those with select cognitive and physical disabilities. Yet, over time, these places became overcrowded and in turn, critics encouraged ways of managing disability and difference. The “colony plan,” which favored larger facilities and increased use of institutionalization, became an ideal. At the same time, the industrial revolution brought decades of intensifying immigration and new levels of poverty, housing shortages, and crime. Now, even colonies were thought too small to manage the growing social problems of the day. In response, some elites in Connecticut—along with their peers in other states—gravitated toward explanations of social disruption rooted in science. Drawing upon the new language of heredity, reformers now argued that intellectual and developmental disability, epilepsy, poverty, and propensity to crime were inheritable and yet just as importantly, preventable. This thinking came from the science of eugenics.

Reacting to the sweeping changes around them, some figures, including Connecticut’s
once esteemed Lakeville School superintendent George H. Knight, argued that Connecticut should apply tools of “better breeding” that had been developed from within the natural sciences for plants and animals to humans. Knight was not alone in this thinking. As these digitized historical newspapers show, many physicians and other respected professionals in the state were keen to embrace eugenics and the idea that races of people could be “bettered” through legal restrictions on human procreation. To that end, legislators worked to codify select marriage prohibitions and sterilizations into law, with the support of administrators such as Dr. Charles T. La Moure. During his tenure at Lakeview, in 1917 La Moure argued for a bill that urged large-scale “custodial” care of the “feeble-minded” so as to prevent the birth of more criminals as well as the poor and sex workers.

Connecticut historical newspapers offer a window into this moment when eugenics took
off. For years, the work undertaken by professionals in local “hygiene” groups related to
eugenics, along with the projects of national reformers, were featured in daily newspapers. Not all are explicitly linked to eugenics scientists per se, but all trace their genesis to eugenic thinking. For instance, some newspapers reported on the features of ideal babies, while others printed articles on how criminality could be tracked through genetics and found in an individual’s features. Unfortunately, the voices of those who were most affected by eugenic thinking—those who were actually sterilized or institutionalized—are difficult to find in local papers. Yet stories about such persons can also be found when reading against the grain. Overall, there is no shortage of evidence that this kind of social engineering was in the lives of most in CT, in some way.

It is important to note that Connecticut’s eugenic marriage law, which carried prison
terms for marrying someone from any of the proscribed groups, may not have actually ever been used to imprison. Likewise, it is unclear how often sterilization was actually ordered by the 
boards assigned to this task in state institutions. What’s more, not everyone was in favor of eugenics. Some Connecticut residents who vehemently opposed eugenic measures such as marriage bans and sterilizations, made their views known in letters to the editor and lectures. Finding all of these types of stories presents a more balanced view of how eugenic thinking influenced people in this area.
Connecticut’s history provides an important case study when considering the state’s early adoption of both 19 th century social reform and 20 th century eugenic thinking. Ultimately, to better understand how society grappled with these phenomena, national histories on changes in legislation and broad movements ought to be paired with these newspapers, where we can see local actors dealing with these highly complex issues. Eugenics principles were deeply engrained in the thinking of lawmakers, social reformers, and physicians through the 1930s, and in some cases, well beyond World War II; these local papers provide at least part of that story.
How to Search
Entering “eugenic” and “marriage” in the search box called “All the Words” will yield many relevant results. Using the term “social hygiene” in the search box called “Phrase” will be a productive route to learn about social and reformist groups related to eugenics.
For a more focused project on local people and eugenics, the “Women’s Social Page” in the Bridgeport Evening Farmer is a useful place to start. Here, researchers can glean information on the Connecticut Society of Social Hygiene. Richer details on speeches and meetings can also be found by searching for “Valerie Parker,” “Valeria Parker,” “Dr. Parker,” or a variation of those with an H. between the first and last name, I.E., “Valerie H. Parker.”

Examining articles with “heredity” or “hereditary” will also reveal the ways that discourses of genetics and theories about criminality became connected. This term will also return articles on farming, work at the grange, and the Connecticut Agricultural College (UConn). This search reveals the connections between the historic study of “better breeding” of plants and the social projects of eugenics. Finally, a considerable number of articles are available on those who were dubbed “Feeble-minded,” a category no longer used to describe persons with cognitive disabilities today. To better understand this history, searching with this term will provide material for gaining insight on how ideas about disability have changed over time.

A targeted search with the phrasing “better babies” will reveal how this language spilled over into advertisements for commercial products, for local gatherings and fairs, and articles on motherhood. There are also considerable results for “baby contest(s).” Researching this topic will also be useful for projects on rural amusements, such as fairs and other social gatherings.
Sample Results 

Auburn

While many older towns in New England have a historic green & at least one quaint row of historic homes, Auburn, Massachusetts is different. For the better part of two centuries, Auburn has been an important hub for transportation. In addition to the many small and meandering side roads, Auburn is well known for access routes to major interstates and highways. With connectors to Routes 12 and 20, I290, I90, and I395, Auburn certainly provides easy access to nearby suburbs and the city of Worcester just eight miles away. If those numbers don’t register anything for you, all you need to know is this: Auburn is a busy, modern suburban landscape with byways crisscrossing through at nearly every turn. 

Preservationists and historians tend to write about the places where historical structures and landscapes are more or less intact. We’re looking for the sites where we can show something that resembles the way it was. Auburn is not the best place to understand how colonists in Massachusetts built communities radiating from a town common. Nor is it a starting place for grasping the development of mill villages or industrialization in the 19th and 20th centuries in New England. But it is a great place to understand how small certain types of community spaces persist into the present, even and perhaps especially in places where people have decided that imminent domain will rule the day.

Having lived in another suburban area with curious planning practices, I am keen to look for cemeteries in places where (to the contemporary eye) they ought not to exist. So, it was with a mix of disgust and delight that I visited the historic cemetery known as  West Auburn Burial Ground on Waterman Rd. and Southbridge St. Today, this burial ground is surrounded by many modern buildings and busy connectors. From within the stone walls that mark the parameters of the cemetery, however, there are stones that capture important stories and conjure difficult, rebellious periods of the past. 

At the onset, this cemetery was first created for the Warren and Goulding families. Jonah Goulding, who served in the Revolutionary War, was one of the 26 men who fought for Ward (Auburn). Goulding continued fighting after the war, participating in Shays’ Rebellion. As a consequence, Goulding was sentenced to die for an act of legal obstruction, but this was not to be. Goulding was later pardoned and lived until 1826, when he was buried here in this cemetery.

Another notable Auburn resident buried here is Richard B. Jennison (1842-1864). A member of the 36th Regiment, Massachusetts, Jennison enlisted in the army at the age of twenty, interrupting his life as an Auburn farmer. Jennison was only in his 24th year when he died, an event plainly marked on his gravestone which reads:  “Starved in Andersonville.” One of the largest Confederate military prisons used during the Civil War, Andersonville became the final battleground for too many young men. During the 14 months that the “rebel prison” was run by Confederates, more than 45,000 Union soldiers were held captive; nearly a third, or 13,000 perished. Some people recreate at Andersonville today; there are even camps hosted on occasion. As for Jennison, there is no high ground in pretending that he is better remembered by his community.  Today, his dirty marker is seeping into the earth of a site overshadowed by a Wendy’s. 

 

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A Pocket History 

Just over a year ago, I began writing this blog as a way to document some of my experience as a public historian. My first post was about giving a talk at a centennial NPS event in Boston. Last month, I was invited back to Boston National Historical Park (at the Navy Yard in Charlestown) to talk once again about women and war work, with a focus on World War II. As part of this event, I was also honored to serve on a panel about the legacies of Rosie the Riveter with a fellow researcher, a welder, and a gardener who has made her own rugged clothing line for women. Over the course of the day, our conversation circled around a few key themes, including: how women’s work cultures have changed, the significance of World War II to current public perceptions of women’s labor, and the ways that clothing shapes social cues of exclusion and inclusion.
Now, for a little backstory on why clothing was and is so important. During World War II, women working in government-run and/ or private shipyards as “Rosies” or SWONs – Shipbuilding Women of the Navy – needed sturdy and safe protective gear. But uniforms of that period and for that type of work were generally (I am always hesitant to definitively say exclusively) designed for men. In newspapers and other publications where SWONs were discussed, reporters fretted over this need for new patterns for women. Yet  specific size or shape differences per se were rarely up for discussion. The issue was, by design, cultural and not practical. It was not as if pattern makers or tailors were altogether rare. It was the taboo, the threshold about to be crossed that raised alarm. Looking back, we can see that it was not so much the precise outfitting needs but the matter of how women could do this kind of work and avoid the risk of appearing unfeminine. Put another way: could women be temporarily outfitted in this gear needed for heavy labor without something more fundamental shifting in their own minds and in the broader public?
These questions resonated with some urgency among the female panelists who work in industrial and manual crafts today. The presenters who work in horticulture and welding, respectively, had done “hacks” to make their existing uniforms fit and suit their needs. I want to dwell here a moment. This words fit and suit are simply so apt. When male outfits are the norm in a line of work, how are women and frankly, anyone whose bodies do not conform to existing patterns supposed to react? How does one NOT see this issue of outfitting as a sign that on some level, one is being pegged as somehow less fit for the job?
Taylor Johnson, who also spoke to this issue, struggled to find good pants while working as a gardener in Boston. So she began her quest to “fit” in her field by unraveling what she knew about women’s clothing manufacturing. She took to researching clothing archives, NAFTA policies, and the contours of historic women’s patterns. What she found was a strong tradition of clothing made for women (by women) that is now largely forgotten in our world of cheaply made, disposable, mass produced textiles. Inspired by prewar women’s work dresses and the strength of historic denim, she reached out to designers and tailors to have her own line of custom-made apparel. The demand for more clothing of this kind has been overwhelming.
There are a few lessons in her story, I think. We talk so much about the social cues women internalize when it comes to work. It’s important to also examine the ways in which gatekeepers use something as basic as clothing to send messages about who belongs. Yet Johnson’s discovery of now abandoned designs for women (IE the practical yet tailored work dress) should also caution us about the problems with easy or linear narratives about the past. Historically, of course women needed sturdy work clothes. Of course they knew how to make them, or how to find someone who did. It is our own presentism and reliance on (unethical) systems of cheap (for whom?) clothing production that largely makes such histories harder to see.
Yet I also think there’s something particular about the Rosie figure (who, I should add, is what brought us all together) that is especially important to this discussion. Why isn’t there a better collective sense, today, about this history of women’s industrial garb? Well, let’s consider the pervasive image of women working that we do know–Rosie. Few women who worked during the war in heavy trades looked like Rosie the Riveter at work. On some level, most folks today might assume or intuit this, remembering if they choose to do a little homework that indeed, she was a product of wartime propaganda, not a true-to-life portrait. Many young women now, after all, have seen far more of her than any woman who worked in a defense plant 70+ years ago. Rarely seen and only briefly disseminated during the war, Rosie has had a far, far more robust postwar life than the artist could have imagined. So, this must make us think: what kind of “cultural work” is the image/icon of Rosie doing in the postwar period? Is this prominence perhaps linked to the “forgetting” of the earlier (and more supportive, perhaps?) culture surrounding women’s work wear? Keep in mind: the Rosie most folks focus on replicating in art and selfies today is quite different from Norman Rockwell’s own “Rosie,” a busy worker whose denim-based outfit might be far more reasonable for heavy lifting, then and now.
When seen through this lens of fashion and fit, the image of Rosie most know best might not seem quite so inspiring  for women; instead, it might be read as presenting a false hiccup in a narrative about women’s place in industry. OK, I’ll admit it: even after two entire days of considering “the Rosie,” I am left with so much ambivalence.
I find this image both incredibly inspiring (she’s so proud!) and somehow very depressing (must she be so glamorous?). During my talk, I also argued that we cannot view this very famous woman-in-a-kerchief in isolation. After all, who is the other, arguably even more pervasive image of a kerchiefed woman from the 20th century? If you can’t remember, you might have an image of her in your pantry or refrigerator. Should you need to pay either a visit, you just may find that Aunt Jemima’s head is fully covered (in a very similar red kerchief). But she is smiling, for in this form of propaganda, difficult and demanding work is portrayed as simply delightful. In this way, Rosie is at least in part a symbol of privilege – a marker of a moment when people chose to see the issue of finding clothing for (mostly white) women to wear in a defense plant as a totally puzzling endeavor.

Haunting

It is a truth universally acknowledged, that an abandoned asylum or institution must be truly haunted.

In the state of Rhode Island, there are a few especially well known haunted areas. The first is the grave of Mercy Brown, who was once believed to be a vampire, though that story is a tragedy best told another time. The second site, which is incidentally located in the same, largely rural town of Exeter, is the place where the Ladd School was once run. In operation for more than 70 years, this institution was named for Dr. Joseph Ladd, a physician. Dr. Ladd lived onsite and oversaw the operation of the facilities (which were later named in his honor) for much of his life. Initially, this facility began as the Rhode Island School for the Feeble-Minded; a small operation, there were only a dozen or so residents. Yet, in time, the Ladd School become a massive operation, with up to 1,000 people ranging from the very young to the very old living on the campus. Still, 30 years on in the early 1940s, there would only be one doctor. As with other asylums, hospitals, retreats, and training centers, Ladd ballooned in size yet not in support staff.

So, why was this place created? As with other prominent doctors and many other professionals of his day, Dr. Ladd was a proponent of Eugenics. This context is incredibly important, and it was rightfully at the very forefront of a lecture I heard tonight at my local library. The talk was given by local journalist Kelly Sullivan Pezza, who is writing a book on the institution. As Sullivan Pezza stressed, Ladd was invested in not only creating a separate, segregated space for those with cognitive and physical disabilities. He wanted to create an environment where such persons would not be given an opportunity to have offspring. Sullivan Pezza painted a deeply disturbing picture of Ladd. She did not sanitize his efforts as those of a misguided bureaucrat, or dismiss his thinking as simply “of his time.” Rather, she described in great detail how Ladd would track down former residents who he believed should not reproduce. She made real for us his incredibly disproportionate sense of social power and responsibility by telling true stories about how he sought to manage families’ lives, including those who did not even live at Ladd. With great care, she revealed the extent to which his compulsive need to control those he deemed inferior largely created a map for his life’s course. It is obviously unfortunate that given his own social status, Dr. Ladd was able to change the trajectory of so many other lives, too.

Whatever promising beginnings there might have been, for even a moment at the early Ladd school, would have been impossible to locate, even a decade on. The “school” system at Ladd offered next to nothing by way of instruction for many years; those who were there to “learn” became known as inmates. Young women who transgressed in some way might be sent there by concerned parents; paper trails show anxious families then writing with the hopes that the young woman be released, only to find that sterilization was made part of the young lady’s “parole.” Those with cognitive difficulties often regressed due to inattention. The sanitation was abysmal. Those who have read reports or seen documentary work from the 1970s on the push for de-institutionalization will not be surprised by how Ladd, as an institution, devolved over time. The conditions had been inhumane for decades by the 1970s, but a shift in the broader culture had to occur before places like this would be shut down. In addition to (I imagine) a growing flood of anxious outsiders pressing for change, specific advocacy groups began speaking out against the confinement of people at Ladd. A prominent Rhode Islander quoted by Sullivan Pezza seemed to speak for many when he asked, in the 1970s, “Where has everybody been?” I found myself wondering this, too. Who knew about the deplorable conditions? Who was profiting from the steady stream of state money that kept Ladd afloat?

I was pained by both the severity and the recentness of this history.  Yet I was grateful it was being told, and being spoken aloud to a packed room. It is convenient and far too easy to consider Eugenics a fringe movement that ended with the fall of Nazi Germany. As with so many topics, we need local history, and local historians, to take these complex movements and bring them closer to home. We need to have these kinds of conversations about how a concept such as Eugenics–the idea that humanity could be bettered through selective breeding–was carried out not simply by distant historical figures, but by real people who lived, worked, and often, raised families in plain view. To the question “Where has everybody been?” we could say: right here, right where we still are.

Sullivan Pezza concluded her talk with an image of gravestones that remain at Ladd. Many are in poor shape; the names were often carved by “inmates.” I can’t imagine they are easy to access today, for those who wish to pay their respects (as opposed to breaking in on a lark). Compared to the rest of Ladd, however, it is important that they remain. For more than two decades, Ladd has been gradually disappearing from the landscape. Many buildings of this once large complex have been and are still being demolished. In time, fewer and fewer people will probably remember hearing stories about how the abuses of Ladd were exposed; we can only guess how much longer former residents will be around to speak about them.

Sullivan Pezza told us about the looters — the people who came into the site, taking toe tags and medical records. These people, some of whom regard themselves as thrill seekers or ghost hunters, have been stealing the list bits and pieces of the lives that were already stolen. Within Rhode Island and the larger “hunting” community, many fixate on which ghosts might linger at Ladd. They ponder how these spirits might frighten us if we dare intrude and take a peek at their former world. Here’s what I am haunted and struck by–the number she left us with: 4,533. This is how many residents came to Ladd from 1908 until it was formally closed, until the last resident left in 1994. An early goal of the institution had been to remove these people “from circulation” — from being integrated into society. The room was absolutely rapt as she reminded us that the Ladd school had indeed removed these people, for a time, from the rest of society. The silence that envelops Ladd today is a troubling continuation of the silences that kept the “feeble-minded,” a term so loosely and ill defined that it could encompass nearly anyone, apart, alienated–and away.

Something that is haunting is partially defined as “difficult to ignore or forget.” Yet many of the people at Ladd have been rather easy for mainstream society to forget. We often regard Eugenics as little more than a relic of early 20th century society. Then, we simultaneously seek out complicated machinery to try to communicate with “spirits” on sites of great historic suffering. If we are to be haunted at all, it should be because of a clear vision of this history. We need not step or trespass into their hallowed ground to recognize a difficult past.